Bookism: The Silent Threat to Good Writing

When creating fiction, writers will inevitable have to learn how to write dialogue. I have never read a novel without it though I suppose one exists somewhere out there. One vital key to good dialogue is attributing the spoken words to the proper character, so readers instantly know who is saying them.

We do this by using dialogue tags: “The last time I heard this song by Charlie Rich,” Liam said, “you were young, adventurous and in love with me.”

The words Liam said is a direct dialogue tag. It tells the reader without fuss or doubt that Liam said those words inside those quotation marks.

Another method of informing readers of who said what is through an action by the character. This is technically not called a dialogue tag, but it does the same job.

For example: “This was my favourite show when I was a kid.” Judy grabbed the clicker and turned up the volume. “My brothers and I watched it every Saturday morning.”

Both these methods of indicating who said what are clean and non-distracting. Readers often won’t notice them, which means they won’t be nudged or jerked from the story, but will continue to read without interruption.

Bookism, the Silence Threat

Bookism is the term used when words other than said, asked and whispered are used in dialogue tags. Similar words that truly define a manner of speaking can be used sparingly: shouted, yelled, cried and screamed.

I think of the verbs—except for said—in dialogue tags as million-dollar words. In other words, if I have only 20 million to spend writing a hundred thousand-word novel, I can use these verbs only 20 times. Or I could think of it as using them once every 5,000 words.

Exaggerating the use of bookism produces this type of dialogue…

“Kris,” blurted Billy.

“Kristofferson?” questioned Freda.

“Is there any other?” he quipped.

“Not for Sunday Morning Coming Down,” she asserted.

“Or Me and Bobby McGee,” he shrieked.

“I could play it now,” she teased, holding up the 45.

“Oh, you must!” he hissed.

“It’ll cost you,” she grinned.

“I’ve got a dime,” remarked Billy.

“I’ll take a dollar,” demanded Freda.

“Sold,” he bellowed.

Although this was exaggerated, I have seen self-published novels with this type of dialogue. The authors put a lot of work into finding words to use instead of said, but it was unnecessary.

When reading bellowed, hissed and asserted, readers may pause for a fraction of a second to imagine the facial expressions or the emotions described by them. This reminds them they are reading a story and they become less consumed in the lives of the characters and more aware of their surroundings in real life. That’s not what my goal is when I write. I want readers so absorbed in the story, they forget about time, commitments, eating and where they are. I don’t always reach that goal, but it’s what I aim for.

Rewriting the above section using said or no dialogue tags at all might look like this…

“Kris,” said Billy.

“Kristofferson?” asked Freda.

“Is there any other?”

“Not for Sunday Morning Coming Down.”

“Or Me and Bobby McGee.”

“I could play it now.” She held up the 45.

“Oh, you must!”

“It’ll cost you.”

“I’ve got a dime,” said Billy.

“I’ll take a dollar.”


A character’s name should be mentioned only when it is unclear who is doing the talking or the action. Because the above conversation involved a male and a female, a she or a he can be inserted to confirm who was speaking.

If the conversation was between two men (or two women), mentioning one of their names after several lines will keep readers informed. One of the complaints I hear from readers when they encounter a full page of dialogue is they have to go back and see who was saying what because lines weren’t tagged properly. This harshly jerks readers out of the story and they may put down the book, remembering they have to cut the lawn.

Overworking Dialogue Tags

Obviously, dialogue tags shouldn’t do all the work. If they are, that means characters sound all the same, that there’s nothing about the manner in which they speak or what they say to distinguish them from one another.

In February 2016, I wrote a post—Giving Characters Their Distinct Voice—to shed light on how to make characters sound different.

Said is NOT Dead

Although you will hear teachers, writers and others claim, “Said is dead!” they are wrong. Said is alive and well; I just spoke to him last week. I wrote an off-the-cuff post about this in 2014. You can read it here: Said is Dead?

Why Has Bookism Become So Popular?

Shadows in the Stone

Blame it on the public school English teachers. I’ve talked to them about this, and their answer is always: We want students to broaden their vocabulary. My response to this is: Wouldn’t it be better to broaden their vocabulary by introducing stronger verbs rather than butchering dialogue tags and forcing those who want to become fiction writers to unlearn bookism?

I haven’t met a teacher yet who agreed with the idea.

Telling someone to search for words other than said to use as dialogue tags is the same as telling someone who is underweight to add pounds by eating chocolate bars and potatoes chips instead of fruits and vegetables. The goal might be reached, but the after effects might be harmful.

Is Doubt Clouding Your Thoughts?

If you doubt what I’ve written even in the slightest, check out the following posts, and then do your own research. I was enlightened to my bookism many years ago while reading an article in a writer’s magazine. That day, I tossed the sheet containing more than a hundred other ways to say said and never looked back.

Keep it Simple: Keys to Realistic Dialogue (Part II), a Writer’s Digest article

9 Easily Preventable Mistakes Writers Make with Dialogue by Joanna Penn

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18 thoughts on “Bookism: The Silent Threat to Good Writing

  1. Every time I read things like that, I feel like I’m in some bizarro universe, since the recommendations in my native language are precisely the opposite — all the bookisms, all the time. Writing “said” multiple times per page is considered unprofessional.

    In my particular case, I am a translator from English. Inserting bookisms into plain dialogue is literally a part of what I have to do to make the text palatable to the local readers.

    And so I make the characters blurt or mention, ask or answer. The rules here are such, that we are even allowed to do this:

    “What did you say?” blinked Bob.

    Yep, if someone blinks (or swallows, coughs, etc.) while speaking, it’s perfectly alright to just use that as their dialogue tag! All in the name of not overusing “said”.

    So I wonder — can there actually be ANY objective reason to use or avoid bookisms if the guidelines can be that different for different languages?


    • We are in a bizarre universe. Incredible that you have to add bookism. Using words like ‘blinked’ and ‘swallowed’ as dialogue tags feel odd. But it is all in perspective. The language and customs dictate, I guess. In 100 years, it might be different for readers in North America. While I limit my tags, the words ‘said’ is not used as much as one thinks. I often use no tags at all. Most of the time, they are unnecessary.

      Thank you for visiting and sharing your experience. It’s interesting to know how other languages feel about these things. Personally, if it’s physically impossible to speak while doing the action, I’d never use it.


    • Thank you, Ernesto. Many of us were guilty of this through no fault of our own. This is what we were taught. I’m like you: I often use action and emotional states to replace tags.


  2. I used to write with hundreds of bookisms, thinking that mixing it up was desirable. Fortunately, that’s gone by the wayside. I still use more than you, Diane, but with careful consideration, I hope. I prefer action to indicate my speaker over dialog tags anyway.


  3. I agree broadly, but I find constant use of ‘said’ nearly as much a distraction as constant use of other words. There are too many ‘rules’ postulated about writing novels, and many are just what is fashionable at the time. In a decade or so we might be being told not to overuse ‘said’.


    • V. M., thank you for sharing your thoughts. I know what you mean with regard to too much ‘said’, but I think the key is balance. I use ‘said’ only when I have to. Many times there is no need for a dialogue tag. The spoken words do everything.

      It’s also easy to switch a bookism dialogue tag to no tag at all. For example:

      “I love blueberries,” Anne smiled.
      “I love blueberries.” Anne smiled.

      One sentence is broken into two. No dialogue tag is used and we know Anne smiled.

      Certain rules are there for a reason, and while some can be relaxed or ignored, many should be followed for the ease of the reader. Bookism will come and go to a certain extent, but I believe it will always be less favourable than the use of ‘said’, particularly when it is over done. Bookism overdone is comedy.


  4. Reblogged this on Wind Eggs and commented:
    “Said is dead.” Mrs. Brassballs crossed the room and tossed Johnny’s manuscript in front of him. “Thirty-nine lines of dialogue. Thirteen uses of the word “said.” Any thoughts?”
    “I like “said” better than, ‘he bellyached, she postulated, and he argued,'” he said.
    Although Mrs. Brassballs may be right about using said 39 times with 39 lines of dialogue, “said” has its uses.
    I prefer to identify characters by blocking their action into the paragraph. But there’s nothing wrong with a healthy mix, and sometimes “said” keeps the flow better than anything else.
    Diane Tibert shares her thoughts on “said.”


    • Thanks, Anna. I’ve met many others who sailed the same boat. As soon as I read that article, a switch flicked in my brain and I recognised bookism for what it was. Still, I had written stories for more than 30 years with dozens of burps, whines, assumes, blurts, retorts, and so on.


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